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- 08/29/13--02:18: _Berkeley - Three we...
- 09/03/13--02:58: _Uganda hosts Learni...
- 09/03/13--05:04: _Photo blog: LR on "...
- 09/06/13--02:23: _Berkeley - "What ar...
- 09/06/13--03:27: _IFAD is there, even...
- 09/09/13--06:25: _Why Country Program...
- 09/13/13--01:18: _Knowledge Managemen...
- 09/18/13--07:25: _Adaptation for Smal...
- 10/29/13--21:36: _“Grow what you eat,...
- 10/30/13--01:34: _IFAD facilitates Se...
- 10/30/13--05:50: _Failure and success...
- 10/30/13--08:23: _First impressions a...
- 10/30/13--08:32: _Working with farmer...
- 10/30/13--11:37: _#failfaire – Speake...
- 11/04/13--10:57: _Make more misstakes...
- 11/04/13--11:25: _Development Practit...
- 11/05/13--02:46: _West Africa's food ...
- 11/05/13--08:45: _Think anew, act ane...
- 11/06/13--00:48: _Focus on East Africa
- 11/06/13--16:33: _Berkeley - Great ex...
- 08/29/13--02:18: Berkeley - Three weeks to go
- 09/06/13--02:23: Berkeley - "What are you going to do?"
- 09/06/13--03:27: IFAD is there, even in the remote villages of Orissa
- 09/09/13--06:25: Why Country Programme Management Team Meetings?
- 09/13/13--01:18: Knowledge Management in Practice
- 09/18/13--07:25: Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme
- 10/30/13--05:50: Failure and success: Two sides of the same coin #failfaire
- 10/30/13--08:23: First impressions at the first South-South Expo held in Africa
- 10/30/13--08:32: Working with farmer groups for greater impact
- 11/04/13--10:57: Make more misstakes #failfaire
- 11/04/13--11:25: Development Practitioners Support the IFAD Case for Scaling Up
- 11/05/13--08:45: Think anew, act anew #failfaire
- Displacement. Don’t tell people to tell the story of their own failure as they will gain it. As them to tell a story to show failure. If you ask people to tell a story of how things could fail, they will revert to the truth - as it is difficult to invent such stories out of the blue.
- Ritual. Rituals change cognitive paths in the brain. Changing costume changes the way people think, allowing people to do/say things they wouldn’t otherwise do/say.
- Process. In modern organizations, there are extensive rules about what you can and cannot do. Modern organizations are dependent on their employees to break the rules in order to get the job done! Most rules are to protect organizations against prosecution and not about what they are purportedly for. Dave underscore the importance of cognitive activation: when you break a rule, you need to use heuristics and you therefore become a lot more alert and thus a lot safer. Heuristics is a dominant control mechanism used by humans for conditions of insecurity and that allow for ambiguity.
- Exaptation. Many things did not evolve for a purpose. It is not about survival of the fittest, but of the luckiest. A capability that evolved for one function exapts into another. Generalists can exapt better. Exaptation is a key process, especially in development.
- Coherence. Coherence is neither empirically true nor a gut feeling – it is half way. We do something not because it is a good idea, but because it is coherent.
- Complexity. Agency in human systems is more narrative-based than it is people-based. If you don’t understand the stories of a group you will not understand how they make decisions.
- 11/06/13--00:48: Focus on East Africa
- 11/06/13--16:33: Berkeley - Great experience. Ready to be scaled up?
Hi everybody! This is the first post regarding my forthcoming special leave to Berkeley. Fyi, I still need to get familiar with the blog reporting system but I committed to Henock (whom I want to thank for his constant support and advice) to report on this experience. I am told I am a pioneer and I am eager to do my best to pave the way for similar experiences by other colleagues in different Universities around the world.
first post. Let me see how it works now. Stay tuned! Mattia
|LR participants on a visit to the oil palm nucleus estate View Point|
|Esparence Musirimu from Burundi admires the quality of fresh fruits|
"I am carrying this home so I can show it to Hamed Haidara, the IFAD country director, Burundi"
Watch this space for the photo blogs for all the three cases visited...
As earlier shared (link), during this LR, we visited three cases, focusing on two different business models: Nucleus estate and out grower model (VODP), and Contract Farming (Star Café &Kabeywa United Coffee Farmers Group; Kawacom).
We also got presentations from Kakira Sugar (nucleus estate and out grower scheme), and Kayonza Tea Growers (contract farming), although we were unable to visit them.
Each of the cases was analyzed on aspects of Ownership, Voice, Risk and Reward.
Vegetable Oil Development Project, Kalangala (implemented under a public private partnership arrangement). There is a farmers' Trust, the Kalangala Oil Palm Growers Trust (KOPGT) which links the farmers to the private sector Oil Palm Uganda Limited (OPUL). KOPGT supports farmers to produce quality fruits, access inputs, financing and the market, as well as supporting the farmer structures under the farmers' association. Farmers are paid through the bank on a monthly based, based on the prevailing price and how much they have produced.
|Mr. Chin shows off some crude palm oil from the mill|
|Some LR participants at the palm oil mill.|
This is where the out growers sell their fresh fruit bunches
|A fresh fruit bunch|
|One of the farmers from Beta West Block sharing with the LR how they benefit from the PPP|
The farmers are organized in blocks, and units under the farmers association and the Kalangala Oil Palm Growers Trust
|LR participants pay close attention to Mr Chin (Private sector) as he explains how they work with the farmers|
|A KUCFG farmer's garden - they encouraged to inter-crop for food security.|
|One of the farmers keeps cattle on zero grazing, for food security and nutrition|
|The SIPI falls, one of the amazing sights of Kapchorwa|
|LR participants meet with Star Café and the KUCFG|
|Farmer Omar welcomes the LR to his home|
|PROCASUR's Diana at Omar's farm|
|It is slippery! Careful as you walk down into the farm lest...|
|Omar and his wife explain what they have learned about mixed farming, organic farming and farm maintenace|
|Omar and the Wife receive a certificate of recognition from one of the LR Participants|
|A copy of the contract that Omar and his wife have signed with Kawacom|
|Breath-taking sights of Kapchorwa|
|Inacio of Mozambique, presenting a certificate to Kawacom representative|
|IFAD's Line appreciates a model farmer with a certificate|
|Time for a hike to the Sipi falls! LR can be fun!|
|And, finally, All work and no play...?!|
I must admit that I did not expect so many queries and questions to my first post. The two most FAQs were: “What are you going to do? “ and “What did you do to get there?”. Regarding the first question (the second will be dealt with the next post) I have a learning agenda composed of teaching (“the most effective form of learning”), attending selected courses (held by Alain de Janvry, Olivier de Schutter, Miguel Altieri) and working on my own research related to agriculture, nutrition and health.
|Women from a remote village in Orissa State, India. ©IFAD|
ORISSA, India – Greetings from Orissa, where the Joint Supervision Mission for the Orissa Tribal Empowerment and Livelihoods Programme (OTELP) is finalizing its work.
This IFAD-funded project started in 2009 in seven districts in Orissa, and is being implemented in about 1,000 remote villages. These are conflict areas where the opposition Naxal movement is strong, but the project has not been threatened, as this is a project of and by the people. The communities that OTELP supports are composed mainly of tribal peoples: Soura, LanjaSoura, Konda, Kutia Kondha, Paraja, Bonda, Bhumija and Koya. Through various land reforms, they have lost their forest lands – their natural habitat and resources – and, as consequence, have been impoverished.
This IFAD-funded project with the Government of Orissa is not only reaching very remote areas to improve the livelihoods of the poor tribal peoples; it is also reaching out to the poorest and most vulnerable, including the landless and widows. Some 30,000 landless people have been identified in the project area, and about 15,000 pattas (land titles) have been secured so far in approximately 450 villages.
Rights of access
Land titles traditionally have been assigned to the head of the family, hence to men, but the project detected this inequality and adjusted its approach to include both the wife and husband in each title certificate. Single women and widows, too, are now receiving title to their plots of land.
|Village women in Orissa. ©IFAD|
The process of applying for access to forest land in this area is quite cumbersome and time-consuming, particularly for the majority of tribal people who are illiterate. Non-governmental organizations that are implementing the project provide legal support to villagers as they apply to use and manage forest resources in ancestral territories from which they have been alienated for so long.
Many aspects of OTELP’s work are illustrated by the experience of Duti, a young man in the project area.
When he was a boy, Duti’s otherwise normal life took a different turn when he suddenly lost his father. His mother, a housewife, was forced to become a daily wage labourer to feed her children. Without a title to the land on which they resided, Duti’s mother, now 60, recalls living in fear and uncertainty. “Every night if there was a commotion outside, I used to think: Where shall I go with these kids if I am asked to vacate?” she says.
|Duti and his family outside their home. ©IFAD|
‘Now we can plan for our future’
But a big change occurred in April 2012, when Duti and his wife Pulmi received a patta to homestead a small plot of land. The micro plot provided enough space to build a house, a kitchen garden for growing vegetables, and a backyard for poultry.
Duti’s family has expanded their daily menu – with rice, dal and vegetables, eggs and occasionally even mushrooms. With a roof over his head, Duti now has access to electricity from a solar panel provided through a government convergence scheme. In addition, the patta has helped him get a certificate that enabled his five-year-old son to receive free education in the government primary school.
“I never imagined that we would ever have a plot of our own,” says an Duti’s mother, clearly elated.
“Earlier, we used to live for a day,” Duti adds. “Now we can plan for our future.”
Thanks to the great OTELP team for their warm hospitality during our stay.
|Some of the participants of the CPMT in Masindi|
A CPMT is a forum for sharing knowledge, experiences and lessons learned among projects in Uganda. The CPMT meetings have been organized to handle different thematic areas as the projects deem needful
Sharing experiences and field visit with time to interact with beneficiaries to understand the implementation approach and impacts on ground. Presentations were relevant, and so was the representation of other stakeholders.
Here is the CPMT in photos!
|Farmers' groups have been supported with ox-ploughs to increase area of land tilled|
under DLSP enterprise grants
|CPMT visits a female headed poor mentored household|
|After being mentored, the lady in the second pic above has now started building a better shelter for herself!|
(visible impact of household mentoring)
|Under the infrastructure component, this is one of the roads that has been opened up|
to enable rural farmers gain access to markets
|Mr, & Mrs. Byalero, have been mentored since 2010. Here, they |
are showing off the crops they have been able to plant by working together as a family.
|With the household mentor, Julius (in black shirt), and the Community development Officer, Irene|
(spotting a baby bump), in Kijunjubwa Sub county
|A lady shows of her land certificate to the Commissioner Aide Liaison (Ministry of Finance), Maris Wanyera|
(left). Land registration ensures security of land tenure for poor rural households
Providing a platform for Stakeholders to come together
By Line Kaspersen, IFAD Uganda County Office
Mr Charles Twikirize, the District Production Officer from Mbale, Eastern Uganda, |
asks for answers. Such forums serve as knowledge sharing events.
VODP2 Project Manager, Ms Connie Masaba, |
explains the high level development objectives of the project
There are three critical elements and these include seed, land and knowledge. And farmers need to embrace agriculture as a business not a default option
LC5 vice-chairperson of Lira appreciates the support to smallholder farmers:|
“Small trees make the forest thick. Large trees can never do that".
|Biogas installation Mali|
Developing Rural Territories through Business and Knowledge: The Thai experience with the OTOP and CLC
|Mr. Somboon Wedsuwan, Local Scholar at the |
MOA Life Science and Art Institute
|Mr. Ahmnaj Maiyodklang, leader of the Wang Nam Keaw |
Community Learning Center in Thailand
The Global South-South Development (GSSD) Expo 2013 entered its second day yesterday, 29October 2013, featuring Solution Exchange Forums led by various UN agencies and a leadership round table.
|IFAD Stand at the GSSD Expo|
|Cheik Sourang moderates the IFAD Panel Session|
Dominic Wanjihia, the CEO of Biogas International Ltd. Kenya, was the first on the floor explaining how the innovative Flexi Biogas Technology that was manufactured in Kenya is expanding renewable energy sources for families in Kenya. The Flexi Biogas System is simpler and less costly to build and operate. So far, over 300 systems have been installed since 2011. IFAD is partnering with Biogas International to install nine systems on dairy farms as part of the IFAD-supported Smallholder Dairy Commercialization Programme in parts of the Rift Valley, in Kenya. In Naivasha, for example, four orphanage schools are using kitchen and human waste to produce electricity for lighting and to provide Internet access. The company is seeking partners to enable scaling-up to other parts of Africa and the rest of the world.
|Africa harvest Presentation Stand at GSSD|
Johannes Linn, Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution brought in the aspect of focusing on learning from successes and failures in order to achieve south-south cooperation. He said we should put in place a mechanism to drawing on lessons from monitoring and evaluation processes.
By Laura Arcari
IFAD’s first FailFaire took place at our Headquarters on 29 October 2013. The immediate question that came into my mind was why failure? Why not talk directly about success, who wants to hear about failure?
What are some of the words associated with success?
Accomplishment, Good Times, Prosperity, Happiness
What are some of the words associated with failure?
Punishment, Judgement, Disappointment, No income
What are some of the words associated to People who speak about failure?
Courageous, Honest, Mature, Lessons Learnt
So why a FailFaire? To kill the taboo and change the mind set on talking about failure. Create a safe place where failures can be shared and seen as stepping stones to success. Create a failure friendly organization and strengthen feedback loops for future successes.
We all want to hear about success but we also know that success never happens overnight. The successes that come in winning a trophy in sports, in running a profitable business, in having happy relationships, having a brilliant career or owning material assets, are all fruits of perseverance, dedication, hard work, pain and probably some failures, trials and errors. Therefore if success and failure are two sides of the same coin then we must stop thinking that failure is for losers because failing does not mean that you are a failure. Failing at something before you succeed also helps you to appreciate your success.
Failing is an opportunity to get something right. And the faster and earlier you face what and how you failed the sooner you will succeed. Do not linger on defensive reactions such as ignoring the failure, deny responsibility or self-fix mistakes. The risk of not facing that you failed is that you get really good at doing the wrong thing and the guaranteed failure in the end will only escalate and become uncontrollable.
Admitting that you have failed is difficult because you put yourself in the public eye but if you fail out loud, you can reflect and share with others so that they can benefit. Failing is positive because without it, means that no innovation is taking place because we are simply replicating old successes. However, in today’s fast pace we can no longer afford to stay stale and not continue to reinvent, innovate and update or else failing will come for certain.
Adapting for changes in failing is responsible because as my friend would quote “when you bleed you don’t swim with the sharks”. Here is his story on how he faced a possible failure and turned it into success. In 2008 when the global economic crisis hit Italy, he wondered how long his company would survive but rather than wait for failure he made the personal sacrifice to give up his salary during the critical years and sold family property to invest in innovative research and development. It was not long before the new strategy paid off and today his company has factories in India, China and Brazil. He has also received personal acclamations from the Bocconi University as one of the top five examples of excellence for businesses in Lombardy who survived the last two years of financial and economic crisis.
Challenge your failings when it comes upon your path and future successes will pave the road.
|IFAD grants booth at the Expo. ©IFAD|
The Expo, which is organized by the UN Office of South-South Cooperation and hosted by UNEP under the theme "Building inclusive green economies,” is a landmark event that signals a change in the development paradigm from North-South to South-South. During the opening ceremony UNEP’s Achim Steiner highlighted that “the conversation on development is no longer deposited in the North. We are starting a ‘new conversation’, a new development paradigm.”
The Opening Ceremony was followed by the inauguration of the exhibit area in the morning. Events featured throughout the Expo's first day included the inauguration of the Expo's exhibition pavilion, which has more than 70 exhibitors in interactive booths. IFAD has a strong presence with three booths, including one that focuses on an IFAD-supported biogas project in Kenya.
|Explaining the portable biogas solution.|
|Many people came to learn more about the biogas solution.|
As Wu Xiaoqing, China’s Vice-Minister, Ministry of Environmental Protection, said in his opening remarks, “developing countries have much more in common than difference.”
I am looking forward to the next few days to see if his statement rings true.
The Global South-South Expo is held in Nairobi is from 28 October until 1 November.
Some members of Amazo group celebrating being together|
and receiving guests. ©IFAD/Ann Turinayo
|Moriku tends her sesame garden. ©IFAD/Ann Turinayo|
|Scribe's wall from the morning session of IFAD's first FAILfaire. ©IFAD|
Known as a FAILfaire– IFAD’s first – the event reflected a growing awareness in the international development sector that failure is a natural part of doing business. While some of the leaders in this field accept the importance of learning from failures, it seems fair to say that the corporate cultures of most development organizations are still not open to the free and unfettered sharing of such experiences.
Every speaker at the IFAD forum yesterday talked about the challenge of opening up a dialogue on failure. The three guests who brought their expertise to bear in the morning session were especially focused on this question. How, they asked, can we establish a safe space for honest conversations about incremental failures on the road to long-term, sustainable success in reducing poverty and ensuring food security?
Obstacles to innovation
Journalist and economist Tim Harford, the author of Adapt: Why Success Always Starts with Failure and The Undercover Economist, kicked off the session by explaining why learning from failure is so difficult. He identified four main obstacles to what he termed “productive failure” – including conformity, inadequate attention to feedback, the problem of risk, and basic human psychology.
|Tim Harford explains 'productive failure'. ©Barbara Gravelli|
Harford went on to say that unless the managers of any project or initiative seek out timely feedback from the ground level, they will remain unaware of small, correctable problems until they become bigger, intractable ones. And while some enterprises, such as nuclear power plants, do well to avoid innovations that might fail, Harford asserted that the risks of innovating are usually not as great as people fear. In general, these risks can be managed with a modicum of foresight and planning, he said.
As for the pesky variable of human behaviour, Harford highlighted our common tendency to compound our failures because we avoid acknowledging them in the first place.
Overcoming the fear of failure
Ashley Good, founder and CEO of FailForward – a Canadian non-profit that helps organizations become more failure-friendly – echoed Harford’s arguments, reiterating the point that fear inhibits innovation, adaptation and growth. “We have an instinctive fear of failure,” Good said, since the term has multiple negative associations that are absorbed from an early age.
|Ashley Good discusses 'failing forward'. ©Barbara Gravelli|
Above all, they cannot afford to shoot the messenger. “It takes a great amount of courage to speak truth to power. It isn’t always going to be good news,” Good said. “But failure conversations must be truly blameless.”
Failing faster and smarter
Good and the other speakers were quick to say that their goal was not to celebrate failure but, instead, to acknowledge that it is an inevitable part of any project and respond to it accordingly. Unfortunately, this is not yet the norm for most development organizations, said Aleem Walji, who directs the World Bank Innovation Labs and previously served as Head of Global Development Initiatives at Google.
|Aleem Walji addresses the urgency of |
sharing failures. ©Barbara Gravelli
“The greatest risk we run is getting really good at doing the wrong thing,” he said.
In the long run, Walji concluded, it is far more responsible to “fail early, fail faster and fail forward” than to stick with preconceived ideas about what constitutes success. Otherwise, he said, “we’ll come up with the same answers as we have in the past, and we can’t continue doing business as usual.”
|Picture of Tim Harford, by Barbara Gravelli|
If you do not fail, you are not being innovative, you are not being creative and not doing anything new. But why is it so difficult to admit and to fix a failure? There are 4 obstacles to productive failure:
1. Conformity. The power of seeking conformity is compelling, as humorously demonstrated by Solomon Asch back in 1950s (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asch_conformity_experiments). Asch was fascinated by the issue of conformity. Asch concluded that people conform because they doubt themselves as everybody else is doing something else and/or because they don’t want to make a fuss and go against the crowd. And there is an enormous stake involved in agreeing with our colleagues: Asch demonstrated that we conform even when there is nothing to lose, so imagine how much harder it is not to conform when our career and self-image are on the line! What is the cure to this – how can the pressure to conform be eased? Well, it turns out that when we are not alone in disagreeing, then it becomes much simpler to voice our true opinions. A single person in the room who voices a different opinion is enough to enable us to deviate as well. Promoting diversity in opinions is thus tremendously important to create creative ideas: so one person voicing a different opinion (even if wrong!) is bringing in enormous value by breaking the spell of conformity and allowing us all to express ourselves more freely.
2. Poor feedback loops. We can only find out if something is a good idea by providing feedback. When feedback loops are bad, it is impossible to find out if something is good or bad. Ensuring that there are good feedback loops is extremely important.
3. Consequences. Sometimes the benefits of success may be small but the risk of failure is quite large. We don’t really want innovations in certain kinds of systems. For instance, in nuclear power plants, we don’t really want people innovating in areas that could lead to failures. We need to ensure that we take adequate stock of what are the possible consequences of failure. Most of the time we will find that the consequences are small, and it is certainly worth innovating.
4. Our own psychology. When we invest a lot of time and energy on something, we have the tendency to carry on rather than admit we are wrong. This is referred to as the “sunk cost bias”: it implies persisting with bad decisions as a result of our irrational attachment to costs that cannot be recovered any longer. This means that we are often not willing to admit we failed and learn from our experience, so then we risk throwing good money after bad money.
Tim talked about what it takes to fail in a complex world, and about the fact that it is “normal” for development-related activities to fail. We all acknowledged that the risks of failing are very high for us, because ultimately we are meant to support poor people overcome poverty. Tim’s point in this regard was not to invite us to fail more, but to expect to fail (as failure is inevitable) and admit when we do. Tim’s advice is: fail forward, fail faster, fail productively.
So what happened to Twyla Tharp and her musical “Movin' Out”? Well, Tharp had to admit that the critics were right. She decoupled the criticism from her ego and turned it into constructive advice – which she followed. A few weeks later, the show was completely reconfigured and re-designed. And then she got very good reviews and the musical was labelled a great success – to everybody’s astonishment, especially the critics’. That’s how Tharp failed forward, rather than backward: she quickly learned from her failure and kept movin'.
|Nadine Gbossa, Country Director and Head of Regional Office, Nairobi|
|Innovation, learning, and scaling up as an iterative processScaling Up|
|Development Partners Following Proceedings|
|Participants following the Scaling Up Discussions|
West African staple crops on sale in Rome's Vittorio Emanuele Market
7/11/2013: FAO's Trade and Markets Division indicates that plans are in place to distribute publications based on the study to producer organisations in the region.
Patrina Pink is an intern in the Communications Division of the International Fund for Agricultural Development, IFAD. She is also completing a Masters in Human Development and Food Security.
Dave Snowden, seen here at IFAD’s FAILFaire,
is the founder and chief scientific officer of Cognitive Edge,
a research network focusing on complexity theory in sense-making.
Dave kicks off with the concept of naturalising sense-making: how do we make sense in the world so that we can act in it? do we know enough to act? In development, we never know enough to act with certainty and we should build on the way people have evolved to be, rather than on how we would like them to be.
Systems thinking is different from complexity thinking. In systems thinking an ideal future state is defined and then there is an attempt to close the gap. In complexity thinking, the starting point is to describe where we are, and from there, determine what we can change. There is a fundamentally different shift in thinking – from an engineering approach to an ecological approach, whereby we manage the evolutionary potential of the present.
There are several techniques for sharing failure, Dave tells us. We have become very good at this since we recognise that avoidance of failure is a more successful strategy than imitating success. So the brain imprints failure faster than success. Dave describes three techniques for us:
Dave also delves into three key concepts:
Systems can be orderly, chaotic or complex-adaptive. Orderly systems are rule-based. The more bureaucratic an organization, the more people have to work in order to make the system work despite itself. So failure is disguised and when it comes it is catastrophic. A huge amount of energy is invested on managing the system and there is massive inefficiency. Chaos, on the other hand is a system in which there are no constraints and complete randomness prevails. If chaos is understood, it can be used constructively. For example, there is a “wisdom of crowds”: averaging individual assessment of many knowledgeable people can bring to greater precision. In a complex adaptive system, the constraints modify the behaviour and the behaviour modifies the constraints. So here the constraints and the behaviours are co-evolving. Once a pattern forms from the interaction, it cannot be reversed. The system is constantly evolving, constantly changing.
In systems thinking, there are multiple drivers, and there is little or no evidence to understand what the causes are. Levels of uncertainty are very high and often, we are confusing correlation with causation. A complex adaptive systems is not causal, it is dispositional. We can measure its disposition to move in certain directions, but we cannot predict that pulling a certain lever will lead to a specific outcome.
How do we measure success without people defining in advance what success would be? Meaning is emerging and is not objective. People interpret stories differently. We need to start democratising the process of meaning making and cannot have only a few people interpreting meaning. “Meaning” needs to become a problematic word and stories should be captured in multiple languages, recognising that once a story is transcribed, we lose the meaning.
What are the implications?
Dave wraps up by quoting Lincoln’s famous phrase: “As our case is new, so we must think anew and act anew.” We need to deal with high levels of uncertainty. It is not about creating failure but learning from it and learning before we have it. People can be triggered into a heightened state of alert when it is more likely that failure may happen.
Highlights from the International Symposium and Exhibition on Agricultural Development in the East Africa Community Partner States.
The Vice President of Uganda (Chief Guest),|
H.E Edward Ssekandi,
visits the IFAD stall at the exhibition
Haidara Hamed, IFAD Country Director, ESA|
shares his statement
|some of the IFAD delegates at the symposium|
The afternoon session involved parallel cluster sessions on ‘Production, Productivity and Market Access’, ‘Knowledge Systems and Business Development’, and ‘Human Capital, Natural Resources and Policies’. Details from the cluster discussions will be shared on this space in due course.